Garden Worlds, Park Worlds Motives For Colonization As Rick Robinson mentioned, the real reason for extraterrestrial colonization is so that science fiction authors and game designers will have a marvelous background for their creations. But who are we trying to kid? Science fiction, particularly hard SF, is not known for engaging the whole range of human experience.
What the Board expects you to know: Risk factors in the development of addiction, including genetic vulnerability, stress, personality, family influences and peers. Explanations for nicotine addiction: Explanations for gambling addiction: Most of these only consider addiction to drugs chemical addictionfor example: However, loss of control is subjective and raises ethical issues since it suggests a certain level of culpability and blame.
To fully understand the process of addiction we need to consider the full range of psychological, biological, social and cultural variables, as well as consider the individual.
Behavioural addictions Can behavioural addictions such as gambling be classified similarly to chemical addiction? Clinical criteria of addiction Carnes A behaviour that is out of control Severe consequences Inability to stop despite these consequences Persistent pursuit of self-destructive or risky behaviour Desire to stop the behaviour Use of the behaviour as a coping strategy Increasing levels of the behaviour needed to get the same effect tolerance Lots of time spent both in trying to engage in the behaviour as well as recovery Severe mood changes when carrying out the behaviour Social, occupational, and recreational activities sacrificed Characteristics of an addiction Griffiths believes there to be six main characteristics to an addiction.
The Board has condensed these into the following: Physical and Psychological Dependence Physical dependence centres on the withdrawal symptoms experienced when the behavior or the drug stops. In fact it is only when these symptoms are experienced that we can be certain that physical dependence has occurred.
Generally these include anxiety, pain, irritability and shaking.
Psychological dependence or salience when the behaviour becomes the most important thing to the person. From the moment the addict wakes up their thinking is dominated by their next fix. Alcohol and nicotine addicts tend not to be so obvious in this regard, since they are able to combine their addiction with other behaviours in social settings.
However, once deprived of their fix, salience becomes far more apparent. Tolerance Usually associated with chemical addiction such as alcohol or heroin, this one can also be applied to behaviours.
Basically the addict needs bigger and bigger hits to get the same effect as they did initially with smaller amounts. A gambler will need to take bigger risks and place larger bets. There is also cross-tolerance when tolerance to one chemical such as alcohol or nicotine results in larger doses of other chemicals, including medication.
The best example is alcoholics who need larger doses of anaesthetic to render them unconscious. Withdrawal Syndrome Refers to the collection of symptoms that are experienced when the addiction is not being fed.
Essentially these are the opposite of what the drug itself creates and usually involve pain, stress and anxiety. This collection of symptoms provides the motivation for maintenance via the process of negative reinforcement. The addict gets a rush or buzz when engaged in the behaviour.
The addict is also able to use their behaviour to bring about a mood change. Interestingly, the same chemical or behaviour can alter mood in different directions depending on time or setting.
Nicotine can stimulate in the morning or relax before sleep. The pursuit of short term pleasure can cause conflict with other; parents, spouse, friends and can also result in conflict within the person. Griffiths believes that all six need to be present for a diagnosis of addiction. Addiction The main thrust of this topic is synoptic and looks, yet again, at the main theoretical approaches or perspectives to psychology: Risk Factors In this section we will consider factors that make it more or less likely that an individual will develop an addiction.
As such these are not theories designed to explain the root causes of addiction but individual differences in likelihood of becoming an addict.
We shall look at genetic risk factors biological and psychosocial factors such as peers. Genetic An obvious point but it needs stating: We cannot become addicted to any action or chemical if we never engage in that action or take the chemical.
Saudi Arabians are not likely to become alcoholic since alcohol is not freely available in Saudi Arabia. Genes, therefore, can only provide a predisposition to an addiction.
So perhaps being born with a particular genetic make-up makes it more likely that once exposed to that behavior that we will become addicted.
Evidence Clearly if there is a genetic factor we would expect to see trends for the disorder in families and similarities between people most closely related.
Sarafino found that children born of alcoholic parents were four times more likely than usual to develop drinking problems themselves.Download-Theses Mercredi 10 juin Note that having Yiddish as a Second Language is a clue but is not conclusive.
As Lenny Bruce said, all New Yorkers are at least a little Jewish. Having a "Jewish" name ending in -berg, -stein or the like is also evidence but not proof.
These names are actually just German names that many Ashkenazi Jews took when required to adopt some type of surname. Play It as It Lays is a novel by the American writer Joan Didion.
Time magazine included the novel in its TIME Best English-language Novels from to The book was made into a movie starring Tuesday Weld as Maria and Anthony Perkins as BZ. Didion co-wrote the screenplay with her husband, John Gregory Dunne.
The American Psychological Association classifies compulsive gambling as a mental health disorder of impulse control. It is a chronic and progressive disease that is both diagnosable and treatable.
About 2 to 4 percent of Americans have an active gambling problem.
Martin Scorsese: Martin Scorsese, American filmmaker known for his harsh, often violent depictions of American culture. In terms of artistry, he was perhaps the most significant American director of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. His notable films include .
Suicide, attempted suicide and suicidal ideation is common among compulsive gamblers. By the time the devastation of the disease reaches the tipping point in a pathological gambler’s life they face grave financial problems, their families and relationships are in ruin, self-esteem has been decimated and a sense of helplessness and hopelessness is pervasive.