Brazos Press, a division of Baker Books Page count: This revised and expanded second edition is now even more useful for students. It has been expanded to delve more deeply into how Christians can most profitably and critically hear, read, and view popular culture; it more clearly explains how popular culture is art; and it furthers the discussion on media sex and violence.
Freedom[ edit ] Hegel's thinking can be understood as a constructive development within the broad tradition that includes Plato and Immanuel Kant. What all these thinkers share, which distinguishes them from materialists like Epicurus and Thomas Hobbes and from empiricists like David Humeis that they regard freedom or self-determination both as real and as having important ontological implications for soul or mind or divinity.
This focus on freedom is what generates Plato's notion in the PhaedoRepublic and Timaeus of the soul as having a higher or fuller kind of reality than inanimate objects possess. While Aristotle criticizes Plato's "Forms", he preserves Plato's cornerstones of the ontological implications for self-determination: Kant imports Plato's high esteem of individual sovereignty to his considerations of moral and noumenal freedom as well as to God.
All three find common ground on the unique position of humans in the scheme of things, known by the discussed categorical differences from animals and inanimate objects. In Sociology in christians prespective discussion of "Spirit" in his Encyclopedia, Hegel praises Aristotle's On the Soul as "by far the most admirable, perhaps even the sole, work of philosophical value on this topic".
Rather than simply rejecting Kant's dualism of freedom versus nature, Hegel aims to subsume Sociology in christians prespective within "true infinity", the "Concept" or "Notion": Begriff"Spirit" and "ethical life" in such a way that the Kantian duality is rendered intelligible, rather than remaining a brute "given".
The reason why this subsumption takes place in a series of concepts is that Hegel's method in his Science of Logic and his Encyclopedia is to begin with basic concepts like "Being" and "Nothing" and to develop these through a long sequence of elaborations, including those already mentioned.
In this manner, a solution that is reached in principle in the account of "true infinity" in the Science of Logic's chapter on "Quality" is repeated in new guises at later stages, all the way to "Spirit" and "ethical life" in the third volume of the Encyclopedia.
In this way, Hegel intends to defend the germ of truth in Kantian dualism against reductive or eliminative programs like those of materialism and empiricism. Like Plato, with his dualism of soul versus bodily appetites, Kant pursues the mind's ability to question its felt inclinations or appetites and to come up with a standard of "duty" or, in Plato's case, "good" which transcends bodily restrictiveness.
Hegel preserves this essential Platonic and Kantian concern in the form of infinity going beyond the finite a process that Hegel in fact relates to "freedom" and the "ought": Hegel renders these dualities intelligible by ultimately his argument in the "Quality" chapter of the "Science of Logic".
The finite has to become infinite in order to achieve reality. The idea of the absolute excludes multiplicity so the subjective and objective must achieve synthesis to become whole.
This is because as Hegel suggests by his introduction of the concept of "reality", : Finite things do not determine themselves because as "finite" things their essential character is determined by their boundaries over against other finite things, so in order to become "real" they must go beyond their finitude "finitude is only as a transcending of itself".
This evolution was itself the result of God's desire for complete self-awareness. Modern philosophy, culture and society seemed to Hegel fraught with contradictions and tensions, such as those between the subject and object of knowledge, mind and nature, self and Otherfreedom and authority, knowledge and faith, or the Enlightenment and Romanticism.
Hegel's main philosophical project was to take these contradictions and tensions and interpret them as part of a comprehensive, evolving, rational unity that in different contexts he called "the absolute Idea" Science of Logicsections — or "absolute knowledge" Phenomenology of Spirit" DD Absolute Knowledge".
According to Hegel, the main characteristic of this unity was that it evolved through and manifested itself in contradiction and negation.
Contradiction and negation have a dynamic quality that at every point in each domain of reality — consciousnesshistory, philosophy, art, nature and society—leads to further development until a rational unity is reached that preserves the contradictions as phases and sub-parts by lifting them up Aufhebung to a higher unity.
This whole is mental because it is mind that can comprehend all of these phases and sub-parts as steps in its own process of comprehension. It is rational because the same, underlying, logicaldevelopmental order underlies every domain of reality and is ultimately the order of self-conscious rational thought, although only in the later stages of development does it come to full self-consciousness.
The rational, self-conscious whole is not a thing or being that lies outside of other existing things or minds. Rather, it comes to completion only in the philosophical comprehension of individual existing human minds who through their own understanding bring this developmental process to an understanding of itself.
Hegel's thought is revolutionary to the extent that it is a philosophy of absolute negation—as long as absolute negation is at the center, systematization remains open, and makes it possible for human beings to become subjects.
Geist combines the meaning of spirit—as in god, ghost, or mind—with an intentional force. In Hegel's early philosophy of nature draft manuscripts written during his time at the University of JenaHegel's notion of "Geist" was tightly bound to the notion of " Aether ", from which Hegel also derived the concepts of space and timebut in his later works after Jena he did not explicitly use his old notion of "Aether" anymore.
This notion of identity in difference, which is intimately bound up with his conception of contradiction and negativity, is a principal feature differentiating Hegel's thought from that of other philosophers.
Civil society Hegel made the distinction between civil society and state in his Elements of the Philosophy of Right. On the left, it became the foundation for Karl Marx 's civil society as an economic base ;  to the right, it became a description for all non-state and the state is the peak of the objective spirit aspects of society, including culture, society and politics.
This liberal distinction between political society and civil society was followed by Alexis de Tocqueville. For example, while it seems to be the case that he felt that a civil society such as the German society in which he lived was an inevitable movement of the dialectic, he made way for the crushing of other types of "lesser" and not fully realized types of civil society as these societies were not fully conscious or aware—as it were—as to the lack of progress in their societies.
Thus, it was perfectly legitimate in the eyes of Hegel for a conqueror such as Napoleon to come along and destroy that which was not fully realized.
State[ edit ] Hegel's State is the final culmination of the embodiment of freedom or right Rechte in the Elements of the Philosophy of Right. The State subsumes family and civil society and fulfills them.
All three together are called "ethical life" Sittlichkeit. The State involves three " moments ". In a Hegelian State, citizens both know their place and choose their place.For Christians, Jesus is the logos, the Word of God; for Muslims the logos is the Qur'an.
Thus, in a sense, the closest analogy in Christianity to Muslim devotion to the Qur'an is Jesus, not the Bible! “ Child Soldiers Global Report ” (Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers) Most child soldiers are between the ages of 13 and 18, though many groups include children aged 12 and under.
Beah, for example, fought alongside a 7-year-old and an year-old. Note: Citations are based on reference standards. However, formatting rules can vary widely between applications and fields of interest or study. The specific requirements or preferences of your reviewing publisher, classroom teacher, institution or organization should be applied.
Oct 02, · Duty-based ethics don't suffer from this problem because they are concerned with the action itself - if an action is a right action, then a person should do it, if it's a wrong action they shouldn.
He attended Wheaton College (–) and received his BA in sociology from Gordon College in Smith earned his MA () and PhD () from Harvard University, where he also spent a year studying theology at Harvard Divinity School.
Smith began his academic career as an instructor, and then Assistant Professor at Gordon College. Christians confined themselves to teaching theology. The Christian mind disappeared from our intellectual landscape. Most of our information regarding history, philosophy, sociology, literature, politics, economy, law, psychology, and science started coming from secular, leftist, Hindu, and Neo-Buddhist interpreters.